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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:00:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014328
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14328
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmphetamine
DescriptionAmphetamine is a chiral compound. The racemic mixture can be divided into its optical antipodes: levo- and dextro-amphetamine. Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, comprising a broad range of psychoactive derivatives, e.g., MDMA (Ecstasy) and the N-methylated form, methamphetamine. Amphetamine is a homologue of phenethylamine.
Structure
Data?1582753165
Synonyms
ValueSource
AmfetaminKegg
AdzenysKegg
DyanavelKegg
(+/-)-benzedrineHMDB
(+/-)-beta-phenylisopropylamineHMDB
(+/-)-desoxynorephedrineHMDB
1-Methyl-2-phenylethylamineHMDB
1-Phenyl-2-aminopropaneHMDB
3-MethoxyamphetamineHMDB
alpha-MethylbenzeneethaneamineHMDB
AmfetamineHMDB
Amphetamine sulfateHMDB
beta-AminopropylbenzeneHMDB
beta-Phenyl-isopropylamineHMDB
DL-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropaneHMDB
DL-alpha-MethylphenethylamineHMDB
DL-AmphetamineHMDB
DL-BenzedrineHMDB
Fenylo-izopropylaminylHMDB
m-MethoxyamphetamineHMDB
Methamphetamine HCLHMDB
[1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2-propyl]amineHMDB
DesoxynorephedrinHMDB
LevoamphetamineHMDB
Levo amphetamineHMDB
Levo-amphetamineHMDB
FenamineHMDB
Miquel brand OF amfetamine sulfateHMDB
PhenoprominHMDB
Sulfate, amphetamineHMDB
Amphetamine sulfate (2:1)HMDB
CentraminaHMDB
MydrialHMDB
PhenamineHMDB
ThyramineHMDB
L AmphetamineHMDB
L-AmphetamineHMDB
AmphetamineKEGG
Chemical FormulaC9H13N
Average Molecular Weight135.2062
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight135.104799421
IUPAC Name1-phenylpropan-2-amine
Traditional Nameadderall
CAS Registry Number300-62-9
SMILES
CC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3
InChI KeyKWTSXDURSIMDCE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point25 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.74 g/LNot Available
LogP1.8Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.74 g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.85) g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.8) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.9) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+128.62131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-125.89631661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+131.31830932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-128.00630932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
AmphetamineCC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C11615.7Standard polar33892256
AmphetamineCC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C11127.5Standard non polar33892256
AmphetamineCC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C11117.6Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Amphetamine,1TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C1311.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,1TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C1330.8Standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,1TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C1604.1Standard polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1502.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1519.0Standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1658.6Standard polar33892256
Amphetamine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1548.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1548.5Standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1756.5Standard polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1939.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1931.9Standard non polar33892256
Amphetamine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1886.5Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Amphetamine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-232318ebc6787ee590362017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Amphetamine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Amphetamine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-98cd0a725199f943d6cf2014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-014r-0900000000-8c26eef755113726e5272017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-QTOF , positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-8cb9815fcd67a6b46f052017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-3900000000-5ec7b13e93ed8e0dc0b52017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014u-3900000000-bbb73c900841d90c0ba12017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9400000000-074f0f58bee23b3ea45a2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9100000000-96e214b1c073232acc7e2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-b6e1299382e4b38f6c4f2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-2ed560c4c86538c3e7902017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-6ddaf7d40e83a5c70c372017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014u-3900000000-5a23e52436daebe587162017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9500000000-f28704987cc3eacc89172017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9100000000-421879391d3453649aad2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-f8b71db6439096bac2b02017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-270039c50b5f89d9c4ad2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-e84756122a0b431eee742017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-3900000000-20cdadf7c5b742c530872017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014r-0900000000-8c26eef755113726e5272021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-8cb9815fcd67a6b46f052021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-536acc832bfad042e9072021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kr-0900000000-e842cf90085d664ef1c32017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-014r-2900000000-2b5fda1ab431107344f52017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0fr6-9400000000-b1a9d46f37313e323a642017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-1900000000-0e421d19515a1429b1032017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-1900000000-fff6e7346b2c36a8ab212017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Amphetamine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014l-7900000000-3cd62c7239479d83b2572017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00182 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00182 details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00182
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00042226
Chemspider ID13852819
KEGG Compound IDC07514
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmphetamine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3007
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID132233
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. ZAPPI F, MILLEFIORINI M: [Treatment of the antabuse-alcohol complication with betaphenylisopropylamine; experimental aspects]. Riv Neurol. 1955 Sep-Oct;25(5):725-32. [PubMed:13298508 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Satiety factor closely associated with the actions of leptin and neuropeptide y; this anorectic peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y and regulated by leptin in the hypothalamus. It promotes neuronal development and survival in vitro
Gene Name:
CARTPT
Uniprot ID:
Q16568
Molecular weight:
12829.0
References
  1. Loos RJ, Rankinen T, Tremblay A, Perusse L, Chagnon Y, Bouchard C: Melanocortin-4 receptor gene and physical activity in the Quebec Family Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Apr;29(4):420-8. [PubMed:15597110 ]
  2. McAlister ED, Van Vugt DA: Effect of leptin administration versus re-feeding on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in fasted male rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;82(12):1128-34. [PubMed:15644956 ]
  3. Muhlhausler BS, Adam CL, Marrocco EM, Findlay PA, Roberts CT, McFarlane JR, Kauter KG, McMillen IC: Impact of glucose infusion on the structural and functional characteristics of adipose tissue and on hypothalamic gene expression for appetite regulatory neuropeptides in the sheep fetus during late gestation. J Physiol. 2005 May 15;565(Pt 1):185-95. Epub 2005 Jan 20. [PubMed:15661821 ]
  4. Scruggs P, Lai CC, Scruggs JE, Dun NJ: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide potentiates spinal glutamatergic sympathoexcitation in anesthetized rats. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):79-85. [PubMed:15680473 ]
  5. Oliveira VX Jr, Fazio MA, Miranda MT, da Silva JM, Bittencourt JC, Elias CF, Miranda A: Leptin fragments induce Fos immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):123-32. [PubMed:15680478 ]
  6. Vicentic A, Lakatos A, Jones D: The CART receptors: background and recent advances. Peptides. 2006 Aug;27(8):1934-7. Epub 2006 May 19. [PubMed:16713658 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis
Gene Name:
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID:
Q05940
Molecular weight:
55712.1
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613 ]
  2. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. [PubMed:7751968 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular weight:
68494.255
References
  1. Lott DC, Kim SJ, Cook EH Jr, de Wit H: Dopamine transporter gene associated with diminished subjective response to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):602-9. [PubMed:15602501 ]
  2. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. [PubMed:15661631 ]
  3. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [PubMed:15764732 ]
  4. Garcia BG, Wei Y, Moron JA, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A: Akt is essential for insulin modulation of amphetamine-induced human dopamine transporter cell-surface redistribution. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;68(1):102-9. Epub 2005 Mar 28. [PubMed:15795321 ]
  5. Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ: The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1;57(11):1397-409. Epub 2005 Jan 5. [PubMed:15950014 ]
  6. Kahlig KM, Binda F, Khoshbouei H, Blakely RD, McMahon DG, Javitch JA, Galli A: Amphetamine induces dopamine efflux through a dopamine transporter channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 1;102(9):3495-500. Epub 2005 Feb 22. [PubMed:15728379 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta- phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular weight:
39091.3
References
  1. Reese EA, Bunzow JR, Arttamangkul S, Sonders MS, Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 displays species-dependent stereoselectivity for isomers of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and para-hydroxyamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [PubMed:17218486 ]
  2. Xie Z, Westmoreland SV, Bahn ME, Chen GL, Yang H, Vallender EJ, Yao WD, Madras BK, Miller GM: Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):116-27. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [PubMed:17234900 ]
  3. Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP: The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Oct;6(7):628-39. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [PubMed:17212650 ]
  4. Xie Z, Miller GM: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a modulator of the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):128-36. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [PubMed:17234899 ]
  5. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [PubMed:15764732 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. [PubMed:9618255 ]
  2. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [PubMed:10454528 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Wu X, Kekuda R, Huang W, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Identity of the organic cation transporter OCT3 as the extraneuronal monoamine transporter (uptake2) and evidence for the expression of the transporter in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998 Dec 4;273(49):32776-86. [PubMed:9830022 ]